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     There is a large variety of testicular dysfunctions which can interfere with the masculine reproductive output. Those clinical conditions are usually related to congenital diseases like: Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willie syndrome, Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Myotonic muscular dystrophy, Addison-Schilder disease- adrenoleukodystrophy, Kennedy disease- an X-linked, bulbar/spinal muscular atrophy or sickle cell disease.
          Sertoli cell-only syndrome, (germ cell aplasia) –a histological diagnosis which defines the complete absence of the germinative cell inside the seminiferous tubules. Men who have this syndrome also suffer from azoospermia and increased level of FSH. The syndrome has idiopathic causes but it can also develop after chemotherapy, in men with XYY or Y chromosome abnormalities, chronic renal insufficiency or other diseases.
          Cryptorchidism has an incidence of 6.4% of the infertility cases. This condition can emerge in men suffering with sex chromosome abnormalities, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism or androgenic resistance, but scientifically there are no clear explanations why in men with cryptorchidism the testicles are not positioned inside the scrotum. The highest incidence of infertility among men which suffer from this disease is related to bilateral cryptorchidism and the surgical treatment is highly recommended starting with the age of 1-2 years.
          Acquired Diseases
     Testicular traumatisms or inflammations are well known causes of hypogonadism. 30% of men who suffered from mumps also suffer from chronic orchite; also in those cases 2 out of 3 men has unilateral orchite. Before the age of 10, mumps is not accompanied by orchite. Testicular damage in adults differs in every case, starting with undamaged fertility up to azoospermia with androgenic deficit.
     Testicular torsion, involves a circulatory affection, and if the patient doesn’t receive immediate treatment testicular atrophy can develop.
     Epididymitis can be caused by sexually transmissible diseases and ascendant urethritis. In the development of this condition the most common responsible microorganisms are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. These infections can have a brusque debut- pain, edema in the testicular area. After the study the biopsy of men suffering from those conditions, it has been shown that in these cases spermatogenesis is affected in a percentage of 78%.
          Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism
     Testicular dysfunctions are common in men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and result from testicular gonadotrophic inadequate stimulation.
Medical conditions which lead to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism are divided in: congenital- isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, Kallmann syndrome, Prader Willie syndrome, the fertile eunuch syndrome and partial/complete idiopathic hypopituitarism; acquired- hypophysis adenomas, nonfunctional chromophobe adenoma, prolactinomas, Cushing syndrome, acromegaly and hypothalamic cysts or tumors; moreover other causes can also be responsible for this condition: cranial traumatisms, meningitis, cerebritis, sarcoidosis, acute diseases, histiocytosis, hemochromatosis, vasculitis, nervous anorexia, and autoimmune hypophysis.

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