In Vitro Fertilization IVF

Find all about vitro fertilization procedure

Find how in vitro fertilization procedure works ivf, risks of in vitro procedure, implantation failure, embryo transfer, the risks and complications of ivf, ivf success rate.

     During primary microscopic investigation of a semen sample, certain factors as motility, concentration, sperm agglutination process, and the presence of cellular particles other than sperms. In this approach either a normal microscope or a phase contrast microscope can be used.
     The first step in the preparation of a routine spermatogram is dropping a small volume of semen (10 μl) on a lamella and then it is covered with another lamella (22mm x 22mm). Due to its weight, the lamella allows semen dissipation which creates the prefect conditions for an optimums examination. It is highly recommended to use standard semen volume and lamella dimensions, and the tests have to be made on a solution with constant thickness (approximately 20 μm) which allows the observation of normal sperms movements. The solution is then magnified by 400 to 600 x. Also, a fresh semen solution has to be allowed to stabilize for one minute at room’s temperature (20-24 C) before proceeding to laboratory examination.
     If the sperm concentration observed under the microscope, varies considerably, the semen solution is not homogenous and has to be mixed again. The lack of homogeneity can emerge due to semen abnormal liquefying, abnormal consistency, sperm aggregation inside the mucus, or sperm agglutination. If any of these occurrences emerges during the normal microscopic analysis, the physician has to note it in the clinical report.
     If sperm number is extremely low, the sample must be centrifuged at 600 G for 15 minutes. Seminal liquid will be then removed, and what’s left of the solution will be analyzed again. Final concentration is further adjusted to the supernatant volume replaced. Sperm morphology and motility are analyzed after solution’s centrifugation.
     The suffix zoospermia is used to describe the semen; usually average semen concentration is 70-80 millions per mm. When a case of oligospermia is detected, endocrine dysfunctions are analyzed and the possibility of toxic exposure. If the sample indicates azoospermia, it is centrifuged and moreover just the semen palette is examined. Seminal plasmatic fructose level has to be carefully analyzed. If no sperm is found inside the specimen’s volume, a post-ejaculatory urine sample must also be examined in order to exclude the possibility of retrograde ejaculation. If inside the urine sample sperm is not present, seminal plasma is tested for fructose, if the test indicates the presence of fructose, a spermatogenic insufficiency is suspected and seric FSH level is measured. If fructose cannot be detected, seminal congenital bilateral, deferent vases and vesicles absence is suspected. This anatomic deficiency is associated with genetic mutations (cystic fibrosis). Polyspermy is not actually associated with fertility problems, just if other abnormalities are present.
     A classic spermatogram is the first step in the diagnosis of masculine infertility and usually includes an exhaustive study upon semen’s general characteristics: motility, morphology, and its penetration and acrozomal capacitation, which helps the physician to establish if he has to deal with a chronic or a temporary problem, to establish the appropriate treatment in order to reestablish the patient’s normal reproductive function.

Add A Comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.