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     Testosterone –plasmatic testosterone level is usually measured if clinical hypogonadism is suspected. The testosterone appears in the serum bound to SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) – a high affinity protein produced inside the liver and albumin. Eventual changes within circulatory SHBG influences total testosterone level. For example obese men have a decreased level of SHBG and total testosterone but normal concentrations of non-SHBG and free testosterone.
     Gonadotropins– FSH and LH are the main testicular function regulators. High levels of FSH and LH indicates seminiferous tubules dysfunctions and deficiencies in inhibine and sexual steroids secretions. Increased FSH level and normal LH level are common usually in infertile men and, usually suggest that Leyding cells function is preserved, unlike the seminiferous tubules’ function. Men with FSH increased levels can also have pituitary tumors. These tumors secret insufficient FSH, and when they enlarge, FSH level rises causing headaches, vision disorders and decreased levels of LH and testosterone. LH increased level is unlikely to emerge without a concomitant FSH increase. FSH and LH levels are generally normal in infertile men even in the cases with severe oligospermia. If a decreased level of testosterone is discovered associated with a normal or low LH level it may suggest a gonadotropin secretion disorder.
     Prolactin– the measurement of the seric prolactin is extremely important in the cases of men who suffer from severe sexual dysfunctions, impaired libido, reduced spermatic volume or a possible hypophysis tumor. Both stress and venous puncture or thorax wall stimulation can increase prolactin level. Prolactin deficit is a rare condition and it doesn’t leave sequels among male patients.
     Estrogens-Estradiol and Estrone are present in small quantities inside normal man serum. Gonadal and adrenal tumors can secrete Estradiol and Estrone and patients with these types of tumors generally present gynecomastia, low libido and low circulatory testosterone levels. Increased circulatory Estrone level appears in obese men or in men who suffer from alcoholic cirrhosis. In these cases also emerges increased Androstenedione secretion secreted by the stressed adrenal and stimulated by Aromatase presence inside the adipose tissue. Increased estradiol level is found mainly in patients who suffer from hCG producing tumors. Estrogen measuring is not necessary in infertile men which do not exhibit signs of feminization and also have a normal testosterone level.

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