Anovulation can be defined as a medical condition in which a mature childbearing body fails to release an oocyte every month during the reproductive period of her life, between menarche and menopause. Because there is no egg to be fertilized by sperm the woman is infertile and cannot have a child by natural means. In other words anovulation can be considered a primary factor of infertility.
Trying to establish the role of anovulation in the more complex infertility problem we face a more complex matter as anovulation can arise from numerous causes starting with stress, diet and exercise and ending with disrupted relationships between the brain and one of the glands which control human basic functions inclusive the reproductive function.
The diagnosis of this condition is difficult to establish because not all the time anovulation is associated with amenorrhea -a disorder characterized by three consecutive missed menstrual cycles, which can signal anovulation; there are women which have a seemingly normal period and their ovaries fail to release ovules. Another unusual condition, characterized by irregular menstrual periods, which can signal anovulation, is oligomenorrhea. Abnormal periods, erratic, scant or short, even painless menstrual cycles can alert the woman and her physician about an anovulation problem.
Modern medicine provides a large range of techniques of diagnostic and in case of infertility assisted reproductive technologies can help the woman procreate.
Individual differences related to each woman’s physiological particularities influence the evolution of this problem; some women have very healthy, well structured endocrine feedback-mechanisms and have regular periods every month while others are sensitive to various environmental factors. Dieses apparently entirely unrelated to the reproductive system can also trigger anovulation.
Chronic anovulation, asides the alteration of the menstrual cycle and infertility can lead to other long-term health problems, like osteoporosis, a condition which affects the bone-structure, and hyperandrogenism, a condition characterized by abnormal levels of masculine hormones in a woman’s body, moreover anovulation pays a very important role in the evolution of multiple-dysfunctions and imbalances described as polycystic ovary syndrome.
In the post-menarche first two years, half of the women potentially have anovulation, but by using appropriate medications and by proceeding to life-changes connected to nutrition, exercise program or stress management, ovulation can usually be restores in a proportion of 90% of the anovulation cases.
The first step in solving this problem is the diagnosis which is not easy as many women which experience anovulation still have irregular periods and they address the doctor when they’ve tried and failed to conceive.